Autofocus Systems

Let's get right to the chase: two primary autofocus systems exist, contrast-based and phase detection. DSLRs use phase detection as their primary autofocus capability, while compact cameras use contrast as their sole autofocus capability. Mirrorless cameras can be either (and in some cases, both).

  • DSLRs — one of the uses of the mirror contained in the traditional DSLR is that it splits off some light to a phase detect sensor. Phase detect sensors are interesting, because they can report not only which direction the focus is off (near/far) but also by how much. Thus, in a phase detect system, the camera looks at the focus sensor, sees direction/distance and tells the lens to "move there." It's very quick, and capable of following movement very easily. Because DSLRs have large autofocus sensor modules, they have quite a bit of finite discrimination, meaning that they’re better at telling the difference between very small distance changes. Because mirrorless cameras do phase detect on the sensor, the geometries involved are far smaller, and they tend to have less finite discrimination.
  • Compacts — (most) compact cameras use the imaging sensor for everything. They look at the image and measure contrast. At the most simplistic level, high contrast means "in focus" and low contrast means "out of focus." Most contrast-based sensor systems have no notion of direction and distance the lens needs to move to improve contrast, so the camera iterates: the camera moves the focus a bit and re-evaluates, then uses that information to tell the lens more about where to go. You’ll often see contrast systems do an over-and-back move at the end, where they go past maximum contrast, then return back to the previous highest contract point detected. Panasonic’s contrast detect system—indicated by the DFD label—is unique in that it uses information about what out of focus looks like for each lens at different distances as a hint as to where and how much to move.

Phase detect sensors often operate with very high data streams (usually higher in a pro DSLR than in a consumer or mirrorless one, which is why the pro DSLRs tend to be better at focus on fast moving subjects). Contrast-based systems operate at (usually) the video frame rate of the camera, which is generally slower, though the tendency has been to up this rate in recent years.

Mirrorless cameras are an interesting crossbreed, because we're seeing both types of systems evolve and get pushed in new directions. For example:

  • Canon M/R/RF use what Canon calls dual pixel capability: Every photosite on the image sensor is capable of providing phase detect focus information to the camera's electronics.
  • Fujifilm X, Nikon 1 and Z, and Sony A use rows of phase detect sensing: Each uses a slightly different approach, but they are all similar in that they use entire lines of photosites, but skip lines.
  • Olympus E-M1 Mark II/III, E-M1X: Dedicate a small number of photosites to cross pattern phase detect, and remap pixels around those areas.
  • Panasonic: Generally only uses DFD, their own proprietary database of out of focus information to look at image sensor data and compare. The lens is moved to a point they think is correct and contrast detect used from there. 
  • Most other models: Other cameras use contrast-detect focus, and pushed three things that were different into their mirrorless cameras compared to their compacts: (1) faster imaging frame rates for focus (now at least 120 fps and as fast as 240 fps); (2) faster lens focus motors; and (3) more sophisticated check-and-jump focus algorithms. 

There's strong demand for mirrorless systems to have focus performance more like DSLRs than compact cameras, thus there's a lot of R&D tackling the problem, and focus performance has improved tremendously in the ten+ years we’ve had mirrorless cameras. The m4/3 cameras were better than we were used to from contrast-based focus systems in compact cameras when they first appeared, and have gotten better with each subsequent generation. 

The many phase-detect-on-sensor systems now appearing on mirrorless cameras are highly variable in nature. The Sony A7 Mark II generation is okay, but not close to DSLR performance, though the Mark III/IV generation (and A9) are faster and much, much closer to DSLR performance. In order of performance, I’d call it this way from best autofocus performance to worst: Sony A9 Mark I/II, Sony A7 Mark III/IV models, Nikon Z6/Z7, Canon R/RP, Sony A6500/A6600, Fujifilm X-Pro2/Fujifilm X-T4, Sony A6300, Canon M6 Mark II, other Fujifilm models, Olympus E-M1 Mark II/III and E-M1X, Sony A6300/A6100/A6000 and A7 Mark II generation models, the Canon EOS M5 and M6 Mark I, and finally the older Fujifilm X-A5 and X-T100. 

Where we stand today is here: almost all mirrorless cameras have focus performance somewhere between compacts and DSLRs, and the average is now much closer to top DSLR-level performance.  

Overall, here's how I'd characterize focus performance for mirrorless cameras today:

  • Static subjectsAnywhere from very good to superb, and generally better than DSLRs. Even the contrast-based cameras are getting very good and fast at focusing on static subjects. There's very little focus lag when you're in Single AF mode on any mirrorless camera. Worst current performers: Fujifilm X-A5 and X-T100, though they still are pretty decent with static subjects. Face and eye recognition routines can make these systems really good for automatic use on human subjects (just point the camera and let it figure out where focus should be).
  • Moving subjectsOnly a handful of mirrorless cameras really get truly close to the best DSLR performance. You often see slight misses in tracking a continuous sequence of a moving subject. The best of the current systems is the Sony A9 Mark I/II, which uses a lot of brute force speed at the sensor to make up the difference. Just behind that you’ll find the Sony A7 Mark III/IV models, and just behind that you’ll find the Nikon Z cameras, followed by the Canon R/RP and the most recent Fujifilm X models. The m4/3 cameras have certainly improved at Continuous AF, but frankly the "miss ratio” on erratic and fast moving subjects is still too high to rely upon them for this on anything, even on the Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark III and the Panasonic GH5/GH5s. Canon, Fujifilm, Nikon, Olympus, Panasonic, and Sony are all closing the gap to DSLR performance, though. Set and handled properly most current mirrorless cameras are usable for many continuously moving subjects. Still, your “hit rate” probably won’t match the best DSLR set and handled properly. 

Autofocus performance for mirrorless will continue to change (for the better) over time. Today the mirrorless cameras are between compacts and DSLRs in autofocus performance, but almost all get relatively close to the consumer DSLRs, and a few get close to the high-end DSLRs. Expect better autofocus performance than your compact camera had (at least from the leading mirrorless cameras), but expect worse than your high-end DSLR. 

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